## Python

#### NumPy Problems

##### Axis Size Not $2^N$

Problem: A thin film is represented by an array of vectors ‚a‘ with dimensions (2000 x 500 x 1), but it is not processed properly because it should really be (2048 x 512 x 1) (2^11 = 2048; 2^9 = 512). Solution: aNew = np.pad(a, [(24, 24), (6, 6)]) will surround the data with zeros to make it up to the correct shape

##### Discretisedfield gives an error to do with iterative unpacking and something not being a multiple of 4

Most likely due to empty .ovf files. Check for any files (probably at the end of the simulation) that do not contain any binary data.

#### Matplotlib with X11 Forwarding

Need to, at the top of the file, have:

import matplotlib
matplotlib.use('tkagg')

If this still gives an error, may need to replace matplotlib.use('agg') in imported modules (this is the case with discretisedfield)

#### Finding Where Python Modules Are Stored

python -m site

#### Getting the Correct Quadrant for Cartesian to Polar Conversions

np.arctan2(y, x)

Similar things exist in other programming languages, e.g. atan2 in C++

#### Jupyter Notebooks

##### Mayavi with Jupyter Notebook

At the very start,

from xvfbwrapper import Xvfb
vdisplay = Xvfb(width=1920, height=1080)
vdisplay.start()

Then e.g.

from mayavi import mlab
mlab.init_notebook()
s = mlab.test_plot3d()
s

That last part with just the s is important!

##### Warning: Cannot change to a different GUI toolkit Error

%matplotlib ... needs to be before importing matplotlib. Every time you change, need to restart kernel

##### Interactive Matplotlib

%matplotlib notebook

#### Matplotlib Graphs Missing Axes

Likely caused by importing a module (e.g. discretisedfield) that modifies the plots

#### Decorators

##### Usage of Decorators
def decorator(f):
def new_function():
print("Extra Functionality")
f()
return new_function

@decorator
def initial_function():
print("Initial Functionality")

initial_function()
##### @property

Allows accessing of private properties with a getter and setter using object.theProperty.

##### @classmethod and @staticmethod

Used for functions that are connected to the class itself, and not to instances of it. @classmethod receives class itself as first argument; @staticmethod does not. So a static method is just kind of hanging there because it has a related functionality.

#### Underscores

Single leading _var: A convention, signalling that the entity is to be used internally. However, a function defined with a leading underscore will not be imported with from foo import *

Single trailing underscore var_: For defining a variable that is already taken by a keyword, e.g. if you want to pass an argument class to a function, could instead pass class_

Double leading underscore __var: Causes Python to internally rename the attribute to avoid naming conflicts ("name mangling"). Double underscore is often pronounced "dunder". These can be overridden, e.g. by defining a __len__ to redefine how the length of an object is calculated.

Double leading and trailing underscores __var__: Reserved for Python. No "name mangling" here with the two leading underscores.

#### Difference Between __str__ and __repr__

__str__() is called with print() or str(), and is supposed to be more simplistic. __repr__ is called with repr(), and should provide enough information to construct the object again.

#### Listing Attributes of an Object

dir(object)

#### Colour Bar Same Height as Imshow Plot

At top of file, call from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1 import make_axes_locatable

divider = make_axes_locatable(ax)

plt.colorbar(im, cax=cax)

If the above solution doesn't work because x and y axes have different dimensions:

At top of file, call from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1.inset_locator import inset_axe

axins = inset_axes(ax, width = "5%", height = "100%", loc = 'lower left',
bbox_to_anchor = (1.02, 0., 1, 1), bbox_transform = ax.transAxes,

cb = fig.colorbar(im, cax = axins)

#### Axis Ticks Don't Align with Pixels

dx = xTickList[1] - xTickList[0]
dy = yTickList[1] - yTickList[0]

im = ax.imshow(array, extent=(np.min(xTickList) - dx/2, np.max(xTickList + dx/2, np.min(yTickList) - dy/2, np.max(yTickList) + dy/2))

#### Professional-Looking LaTeX Rendering in Matplotlib

matplotlib.rcParams['text.usetex'] = True at top of file

#### Unit Testing

##### Pytest

Generally, run e.g. pytest --exitfirst --verbose --failed-first --cov=. --cov-report html

##### Unit Testing in GitHub

Add the required modules to requirements.txt using pip freeze > requirements.txt. It is best to do this whilst working in a virtual environment e.g.

python3.8 -m venv .venv
source path/to/.venv/bin/activate

Note that, after creating the virtual environement and installing the required modules including pytest, you need to run

deactivate
source /path/to/.venv/bin/activate

to ensure that the binary of pytest used is that in the virtual environment. May also need to ~pip install pytest-cov for coverage reports.

A sample .yaml file to be placed in .github/workflows is

name: Tests
on: [push]

jobs:
build:
name: Run Python Tests
runs-on: ubuntu-latest

steps:

# Chekout the source code
- uses: actions/checkout@v2

- name: Set up Python 3.8
uses: actions/setup-python@v2
with:
python-version: 3.8

- name: Install Python dependencies
run: |
python3 -m pip install --upgrade pip
pip3 install -r requirements.txt

- name: Test with pytest
run: |
pytest --exitfirst --verbose --failed-first \
--cov=. --cov-report html        

#### Anaconda Compiler Interferes with Native Compiler

Run conda deactivate.